STARGAZING: Landing on a comet

Ken Tapping is an astronomer with the National Research Council's Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, Penticton.

Over the last few weeks the Rosetta space mission to investigate Comet 67P has attracted a lot of interest.

After a 10-year journey, the Rosetta spacecraft successfully rendezvoused with the comet and went into orbit round it. Then a lander, Philae, was dropped onto the cometís surface to take samples and to have a really close look at the comet and what goes on there. Philae has already given us enough data to keep us quiet for quite a while. However, some challenges arose, which is not to be unexpected when we did not have a clear idea of what sort of thing we were landing on.

Comets have been described as dirty snowballs and big lumps a few kilometres across of the sort of stuff we see by the side of Canadian city streets in late winter — grey or even black mixtures of ice, dust, grit and petrochemicals. Since comet bodies are so small, their gravity is extremely weak compared with what we experience here on Earth. We would therefore expect that with so little force holding them together, they would be soft.

On our planet, gravity is a key contributor to most things we do. Without gravity we could not walk. Being firmly anchored to the ground makes it easy to use tools such as wrenches, drills and screwdrivers, and to push or pull things. Take gravity away and even simple tasks require a rethink, as astronauts know only too well. For most of us the nearest experience we will ever have to being weightless is when swimming. Have you ever tried to just sit on the bottom of a pool, or to do simple tasks underwater? The density of our bodies is close to that of water, so underwater we are more or less weightless. The slightest movement or disturbance will lift you off the bottom of the pool, and doing any sort of operation becomes hard when any effort pushes you off in the opposite direction.

This gives us an idea of the problems associated with landing on a comet and then doing things there. Comet 67Pís surface gravity is very roughly 100,000 times weaker than it is on our world. A famous experiment that Galileo might or might not have actually carried out was to drop two iron balls of different sizes off the Leaning Tower, in Pisa, Italy, to show they would reach the ground together. The fall would have taken about 3.4 seconds, with the balls moving at about 33 metres a second on impact. If that tower were on Comet 67P, the same drop would take almost 18 minutes and the balls would hit at about 10 centimetres a second. Falling to the surface of the comet was no problem for Philae; neither was the impact velocity. The problem was to avoid bouncing off again.

To deal with this the lander was intended to fire anchors into the surface material. To stop the recoil of firing those anchors, a little rocket motor would push downwards when they are fired. The anchors would also be needed to prevent using sampling drills and other devices from pushing the Philae upwards, off the surface, or making the lander topple over. However the surface it landed on was harder than expected, and the anchors did not work, so Philae bounced, bounced at least once more, and finally landed in the shadow of a rocky outcrop, where it could not catch enough sunlight to recharge its batteries. This led to the science timetable being speeded up as much as possible before the batteries were depleted and Philae had to go into hibernation. Hopefully, as the comet gets closer to the Sun, the intensity of the sunlight will increase and the project team expects the Philae to revive and to astound us some more. However, the results obtained so far are stunning and have already made the mission worthwhile. The latest announcement is that organic chemicals have been found, lending credence to the idea that this is how the raw materials for making life arrived on the young Earth, over three billion years ago.

Jupiter rises around 10 p.m. Mars still lies very low in the sunset glow. The Moon will reach First Quarter on the Nov. 29.

Ken Tapping is an astronomer with the National Research Council’s Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, Penticton.


Just Posted

This photo of the small wildfire burning above Naramata was taken at 8 p.m. on Thursday, June 17, 2021 (Monique Tamminga Western News)
BC Wildfire on scene of small wildfire above Naramata

Black smoke can be seen rising from the mountain

Keremeos’ heritage Grist Mill and Gardens. (Brennan Phillips - Keremeos Review)
Keremeos Grist Mill looking forward to restrictions easing with exclusive concert planned

Juno Award-winning folk artist Valdy is set to take the stage

Letter writer says COVID has created lots of newbie cyclists who don't know rules of cycling. (File photo)
LETTER: Newbie cyclists in Penticton need lessons on rules of the road

Penticton cycling group just received city funding, should give back by offering how-to lessons

No dental coverage for low income Canadians. (File photo)
OPINION: Penticton MP’s proposal for universal dental coverage rejected

One in 3 Canadians have no dental coverage, with COVID making it even worse

The weekly COVID-19 map for June 6 to 12. (BC CDC)
South Okanagan sees only 5 new cases in last week

The Similkameen Valley went a second week without any new cases

Bear wanders Kelowna on June 15. (Michelle Wallace/Facebook)
Bear climbs fence, uses crosswalk in Kelowna

The bear was spotted on Baron Road Wednesday evening

Students in the Grade 10 entrepreneurship program at Summerland Unisus School have completed a cookbook with international recipes. (Contributed)
Summerland students create virtual international cookbook

Entrepreneurship program at Summerland Unisus School uses virtual cookbook as fundraiser

Hundreds of people, young and old, joined the three-day Walking Our Spirits Home procession, honouring residential school survivors, those who never made it home and all those affected by the institutions. Here people walk the third portion on June 13. (Martha Wickett - Salmon Arm Observer)
Walking Our Spirits Home from Kamloops provides path to healing

First Nations in and beyond Secwépemc territory join in to honour residential school survivors

More flames
Lake Country home destroyed in large blaze, 11 dogs rescued

Fire crews are responding to 10839 Hallam Drive

(Facebook/Kelowna Cabs)
Kelowna Cabs reaches tentative agreement with dispatchers union

The tentative agreement could help end the dispute between the taxi company and the dispatchers

FILE – A science class at L.A. Matheson Secondary in Surrey, B.C. on March 12, 2021. (Lauren Collins/Surrey Now Leader)
Teachers’ union wants more COVID transmission data as B.C. prepares for back-to-school

BCTF says that details will be important as province works on plan for September

A boat sharing service is extending to Summerland. The company, Penticton Boat Club and Rentals, is also taking over the boat rentals at Summerland Waterfront Resort. (Photo by Chris Stenberg)
Boat sharing service extended from Penticton to Summerland

Company will also operate boat rentals at Summerland Waterfront Resort

201 First Street West 1980s. Prior revitalization. (Photo from Revelstoke Museum and Archives)
Man who redesigned downtown Revelstoke honoured with lifetime achievement award

Robert Inwood has worked on historical projects across the province

Provincial health officer Dr. Bonnie Henry outlines B.C.’s COVID-19 restart plan, May 25, 2021, including larger gatherings and a possible easing of mandatory masks on July 1. (B.C. government photo)
B.C. records 120 new COVID-19 cases, second vaccines accelerating

Lower Pfizer deliveries for early July, Moderna shipments up

Most Read